Indigenous Terminology

Please visit the CanadianAudiologist publication – Indigenous Terminology Indigenous Peoples Guide to Terminology, Usage Tips & Definitions that was published in VOL. 6 • ISSUE 6 • 2019

1. In Canada, there appear to be three distinct groups of Indigenous Peoples: Inuit, First Nation, and Metis. Are the Metis indigenous and as far as Canadian law is concerned, do the Inuit, First Nation peoples, and Metis have the same rights and access to services?

In Canada there are three distinct groups of Indigenous Peoples as recognized by s.35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982: “(2) In this Act, “Aboriginal Peoples of Canada “includes the Indian, Inuit, and Métis Peoples of Canada.”

The three groups do not have the same rights. All of the rights are distinctive to the groups that practice them which stems from the 1990 Supreme Court Decision in R. v. Sparrow. This was the first Supreme Court of Canada decision to apply s.35, of the Constitution Act, 1982 which states “The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.”

In terms of access to services, that too is different for each group.

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